Read e-book online A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the PDF

By Jonathan I. Israel

ISBN-10: 0691152608

ISBN-13: 9780691152608

Democracy, unfastened suggestion and expression, non secular tolerance, person liberty, political self-determination of peoples, sexual and racial equality--these values have firmly entered the mainstream within the many years due to the fact they have been enshrined within the 1948 U.N. assertion of Human Rights. but when those beliefs now not appear radical this day, their foundation used to be very radical indeed--far extra so than such a lot historians were prepared to acknowledge. In A Revolution of the Mind, Jonathan Israel, one of many world's top historians of the Enlightenment, lines the philosophical roots of those rules to what have been the least first rate strata of Enlightenment thought--what he calls the novel Enlightenment.

Originating as a clandestine stream of rules that was once virtually solely hidden from public view in the course of its earliest section, the novel Enlightenment matured towards the reasonable mainstream Enlightenment dominant in Europe and the United States within the eighteenth century. in the course of the progressive many years of the 1770s, 1780s, and 1790s, the novel Enlightenment burst into the open, simply to impress an extended and sour backlash. A Revolution of the Mind indicates that this energetic competition was once typically end result of the robust impulses in society to safeguard the foundations of monarchy, aristocracy, empire, and racial hierarchy--principles associated with the upholding of censorship, church authority, social inequality, racial segregation, non secular discrimination, and far-reaching privilege for ruling groups.

In telling this attention-grabbing background, A Revolution of the Mind unearths the astounding beginning of our such a lot loved values--and is helping clarify why in yes circles they're usually disapproved of and attacked even today.

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This was not charity. The residents of Levittown paid back their mortgages, just as the builders paid back their production advances. But builders never could have scaled up production to meet the demand, and many of the veterans never could have become home owners if the banks and the government hadn’t acted something like the bank in Monopoly—making it possible for players to start the game. In this way, the federal government’s decision to use taxpayer money to make “commitments” to the builders and insure mortgages helped the banking system to serve the overall economy with aligned interests.

After a bank authorized a $1 million loan, it didn’t have to wait thirty years for all the money to come back. Instead an investment bank would buy the right to receive those payments when they came in and give the original bank that loaned the $1 million less money—say, $800,000—immediately. This mortgage bond was just a loan of a loan: the local bank gives the home buyer money today in return for a greater payment over time, and the investment bank gives the local bank money today in return for those same payments expected over time.

It’s Just Us Acknowledgments Index Imagine an ordinary man so desperate that he decides to rob a bank. For years, he’s worked a steady job, but when he loses that job, the only work he can find is as a part-time clerk in a convenience store. Still, he makes do. He cuts his expenses and relies on a little help from his family, though he hates to do so. Then he starts to develop health troubles. He’s nearly sixty years old, and he needs foot surgery. He develops crippling back pain and a frightening bone protrusion sticking out of his chest.

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A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy by Jonathan I. Israel


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