By Richard D. Bardgett
Aboveground-Belowground Linkages presents the main up to date and finished synthesis of contemporary advances in our knowing of the jobs that interactions among aboveground and belowground groups play in regulating the constitution and serve as of terrestrial ecosystems, and their responses to international swap. It charts the ancient improvement of this box of ecology and evaluates what should be discovered from the new proliferation of stories at the ecological and biogeochemical value of aboveground-belowground linkages. The ebook is based round 4 key issues: biotic interactions within the soil; plant group results; the position of aboveground shoppers; and the impression of species earnings and losses. A concluding bankruptcy attracts jointly this knowledge and identifies a few cross-cutting topics, together with attention of aboveground-belowground feedbacks that ensue at various spatial and temporal scales, the results of those feedbacks for environment techniques, and the way aboveground-belowground interactions hyperlink to human-induced international switch.
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Additional info for Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, Ecosystem Processes, and Global Change (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution)
2004; Silver et al. 2005; Houlton et al. 2006). The impact of denitriﬁcation on plant productivity and community composition is poorly understood, although worldwide an estimated 109–124 megatonnes of nitrogen are lost from the land surface yearly through denitriﬁcation (Galloway et al. 2004; Seitzinger et al. 2006; Schlesinger 2009), which may impair total global terrestrial productivity by around 7% (Schlesinger 1997). Another important recent development in this area is the discovery that archaeal ammonium oxidizers (which perform the ﬁrst step in the process of nitriﬁcation that was previously thought to be carried out exclusively by bacteria) are the most abundant ammonium oxidizers in soil, and are therefore likely to play a substantial role in the nitrogen cycle (Leininger et al.
Similarly, the performance of root herbivores has been shown to be affected by foliar herbivores (Masters and Brown 1992; Salt et al. 1996; but see Masters et al. 1993). Moreover, there is potential for both aboveground and belowground herbivores to inﬂuence vegetation dynamics indirectly through their inﬂuence on free-living soil organisms that regulate nutrient availability to plants. For instance, microcosm studies show that root-feeding nematodes and foliar herbivory can enhance root exudation, which in turn stimulates rhizosphere microbial growth and activity, and alters microbial community composition (Denton et al.
1998; Nordin et al. 2001) and temperate forest (Finzi and Berthrong 2005), and low-fertility grasslands (Bardgett et al. 2003; Weigelt et al. 2005; Harrison et al. 2007). Recent recognition of the importance of direct uptake by plants has led to a radical rethink of terrestrial nitrogen cycling and of the processes that control plant N availability (Schimel and Bennett 2004; Jones et al. 2005). In a similar way, microbes also inﬂuence the mineralization of organic phosphorus through the production of phosphatases, which cleave ester bonds in organic matter and liberate inorganic phosphorus for plant uptake.
Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, Ecosystem Processes, and Global Change (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution) by Richard D. Bardgett