By Zahid Amjad
During this e-book, educational researchers and technologists will locate vital details at the interplay of polymeric and non-polymeric inhibitors with a number of scale forming crystals such as calcium phosphates, calcium carbonate, calcium oxalates, barium sulfate, calcium pyrophosphates, and calcium phosphonates. additionally, the booklet offers info to plant managers and formulators who wish to develop and deepen their wisdom approximately procedures concerned with precipitation of sparingly soluble salts and research extra concerning the inhibitory points of assorted commercially to be had fabrics. additionally, skilled researchers will receive fruitful and encouraging rules from the simply available information regarding overlapping learn parts, so one can advertise discoveries of recent inhibitors (synthetic and/or ordinary) for the presently unmet demanding situations.
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Additional resources for Advances in Crystal Growth Inhibition Technologies
Roveri, Thermal conversion of octacalcium phosphate into hydroxyapatite, J. Inorg. Biochem. 32:25 1 (1988). Z. LeGeros, G. Daculsi, I. Orly, T. Abergas and W. Torres, Solution-mediated transformation of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) to apatite, Scanning Electron Microsc. 3: 129 (1989). B. Tomazic, I. E. Brown, Ion incorporation into octacalcium phosphate hydrolyzates, J. Cryst. Growth 108:670 (1991). M. Iijima, H. Kamemizu, N. Wakamatsu, T. Goto, Y. Doi and Y. 4 and 37ºC, J. Crystal Growth 135:229 (1994).
The inhibition data presented in Figure 4 clearly shows that compared to Poly-C, both fulvic and tannic acids are poor calcium phosphate inhibitors when iron is not present. It is interesting to note that whereas it takes ~10 ppm of Poly-C to achieve > 90% inhibition, the inhibition values obtained in the presence of 10 ppm fulvic and tannic acids are < 10%. It is clear from this data that phenolic and carboxyl groups present in humic compounds do not contribute significantly to the inhibitory power of fulvic and tannic acids.
5. The crystals do not contain significant amounts of the polyelectrolyte, as indicated by the infrared adsorption spectra, which do not display any bands due to the presence of polyacrylate. Thus, the inhibition of crystal growth cannot be ascribed to polyacrylate adsorption on crystal surfaces and different mechanisms, such as the formation of chelates between carboxylate and calcium ions, for instance, must be suggested. The main effect of the polyelectrolyte on the morphology of the crystal aggregates seen at the scanning electron microscopic investigation is a reduction of the length of the blades which constitute the spherules, as well as the hollow spheres.
Advances in Crystal Growth Inhibition Technologies by Zahid Amjad