By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is without doubt one of the such a lot interesting rulers of old Egypt. His peculiar visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the sunlight disc Aten have motivated educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions about Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten used to be no longer, as is usually stated, a thorough advocating a brand new faith yet quite a primitivist: that's, person who reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's idea used to be the outdated nation (2650-2400 B.C.E.), whilst the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier reveals that Akhenaten was once a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only real writer God, in line with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come upon that introduced his monotheistic spiritual odyssey.
The publication additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable dating to Israel's faith, delivering a detailed comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out by way of students as motivated via the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious interpreting of key texts, works of art, and archaeological reviews, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the influence of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Additional info for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
W. ”130 Could it be that Userkaf ’s identification as the priest of Re in the divine birth story in Papyrus Westcar was intended to reflect Userkaf ’s role in erecting the first sun temple? , & ). 131 It did not originate in W. Steveson Smith, “The Old Kingdom in Egypt,” in Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 1, part 2 (eds. I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, & N. G. L. Hammond; Cambridge: The University Press, 1971), 180. 130 Nicholas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Blackwells, 1992), 124.
E. Peet, & J. Černy�, The Inscriptions of Sinai I (London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1952), Pl. I. 109 Florence Friedman, “The Underground Relief Panels of King Djoser at the Step Pyramid Complex,” JARCE 32 (1995): 1–42. 110 Gardiner, Peet, & J. Černy�, The Inscriptions of Sinai I, II. 111 Khnum-Khufu is the full name of Khufu, the builder of the great pyramid at Giza. 112 Gardiner, Peet, & J. Černy�, The Inscriptions of Sinai I, pl. II, III. A photograph is included in A. H. Gardiner, T. E. Peet, & J.
He was acquainted with the works of Montu” . . ”31 In all, Montu’s name occurs six times on that stela. Montu, then, enjoyed a rapid rise in power in Thebes with the 11th Dynasty rulers, but was soon eclipsed in the 12th Dynasty, when a new royal family followed who instigated the ascendancy of another Theban deity, namely, Amun. Although Montu’s prominence waned, in later times he continued to play an important role in military matters, as already noted. Howard Carter & Percy Newberry, The Tomb of Thoutmôsis IV (London: Archibald Constable, 1904), pl.
Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier